Tuesday Reads: Boston Marathon Bombing Anniversary, Tom Lehrer and NSA, and Other News

Good Morning!!


Sports Illustrated photo shoot, Copley Sq. Boston, April 12, 2014

Sports Illustrated photo shoot, Copley Sq. Boston, April 12, 2014

One year ago today, this was the scene at the Boston Marathon finish line.




One year ago today, the finish line of the Boston Marathon was rocked by two explosions that left three young people dead and 260 people injured–many with with limbs blown off by the crude bombs.  A year later, the survivors–and the city are still recovering. Last year I was listening to the radio when suddenly I realized something terrible had happened. I rushed to turn on the TV and try to figure out what was going on. It was a disaster. People were lying in the street bleeding along with separated body parts. What could have happened?

Just watching it on TV, I was so shaken that for the next week or so I was in shock. My hands shook, I was easily startled, and I felt an inner tremor that wouldn’t go away. I can’t even imagine what it must have felt like to be on the scene or to be one of the injured. But that wasn’t the end of it. Late at night on April 18, word came that a campus police officer had been shot at killed at M.I.T. and an SUV had been hijacked, presumably by the shooter or shooters. I stayed up all night listening to police scanners on line a following reports on Twitter. I knew immediately this must have something to do with the suspected bombers, whose photos had been released to the public earlier that day.

The suspects had driven through Brighton, Watertown, Waltham, and back to Cambridge. They had driven through Watertown three times–who knows why. I suspect they thought there was someone there who would help them hide from the police. One of the suspects, Tamerlan Tsarnaev, died that night after a dramatic firefight; but the other, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev somehow escaped in the stolen SUV. He wasn’t caught until the next day.

At some point the Governor asked people to “shelter in place” in much of Boston as well as Watertown and nearby suburbs. There’s a misconception that this was “martial law,” but there was no “order” for people to stay indoors, and many went out and were not arrested or anything. Still it was shocking. Even more shocking were the massive numbers of law enforcement officers in the streets of a residential neighborhood–knocking on doors and asking to search houses. At one point, hundreds of rounds were fired at a boat in a backyard where the second suspect was believed to be hiding. It was clear that the response by law enforcement was not particularly well organized.

Now, a year later there are still many questions about what happened, about the suspects, and the response by federal, state, and local law enforcement.  I’ll spare you further details, but here are a couple of news links to anyone who cares to click on them.

Boston Globe: Marathon victims’ families, survivors gather in Boston

Jun Lu and Ling Meng felt they had to make the 7,000-mile trek from their home in China.

After losing their only child, Lingzi Lu, at last year’s Boston Marathon, they wanted to be at the race, cheering on runners.

“We cherish everything that Lingzi was a part of,” Jun Lu said through an interpreter. “Even though last year’s Marathon [was tragic], we want to be there to witness something good come out of it.”

Lu and Meng will be among the many family members of victims coming to Boston this week for official remembrances that are stirring up hope, but also pain.

Survivors, too, will make the trip for informal reunions with the EMTs and police officers who stanched their bleeding and the doctors and nurses who helped them heal.

On Tuesday, the one-year anniversary of the bombings, Vice President Joe Biden will lead a ceremony at the Hynes Convention Center, followed by a flag-raising and a moment of silence at the finish line.

“The last year has been very painful,” said Lu, whose daughter, a 23-year-old graduate student at Boston University, is buried at Forest Hills Cemetery. “But fortunately, we’ve received so much love from people all over the world. We’re humbled.”

Boston Globe: A year since Marathon attacks, many of wounded struggle

A year later, shattered bones have knitted back together, burned skin has regrown, and the survivors who lost legs are walking on prosthetic limbs. What remains for many are the relentless injuries nobody sees.

While there have been remarkable stories of recovery and perseverance among the 275 wounded in the twin explosions on Marathon Day 2013, many still battle hearing loss, ringing ears, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress.

One shakes so badly from anxiety that he has a hard time working as a carpenter. Another, college freshman Sydney Corcoran of Lowell, has developed an eating disorder. Corcoran has endured leg surgeries, complications, and more surgeries, but her emotional scars run deeper. She is often on edge, startles easily, and has trouble sleeping, symptoms of PTSD.

Her mother, Celeste Corcoran, was seriously injured in the blast, too, with legs so mangled both had to be amputated. “My legs were blown off and that’s huge,” she said. “But so many more people suffer in silence because everybody looks at them and sees this whole person.”

On a day for gauging how far they have come, many of the survivors are thankful for the progress they have made in the hands of skilled and caring doctors, nurses, and therapists. Still, some have nerve damage in their legs that has not healed, and the 16 people who lost legs have had to get their prosthetics adjusted repeatedly as their residual limbs shrink.

Vanity Fair: Boston Marathon Bombing Anniversary Prompts Tributes—and Unanswered Questions

Tuesday marks the one-year anniversary of the Boston Marathon bombing that left three dead, wounded 264 runners and revelers, and began a bizarre manhunt for the attack’s perpetrators that would end in a shootout four days later.

President Barack Obama and his senior advisers scheduled a moment of silence in the Oval Office at 2:40 P.M., according to Politico. The attacks took place at 2:49 P.M. local Boston time….

Mental-health experts also told the Globe that anxiety is likely to affect children and other victims of the attack as the anniversary approached, and that such concerns affect not only those who witnessed the actual bombing but also those who endured the ensuing lockdown of much of the city.

I can vouch for that. I’m feeling very shaky this morning and I have that familiar fluttering tremor in the center of my chest and an anxious knot in my stomach. As for the questions:

An investigation by Vocativ into the alleged national-security failures that left the Tsarnaevs—who the F.B.I. had been told to look out for by Russian authorities—unaccounted for in the days before the attack revealed that the F.B.I. had indeed lost track of the eventual bombers. In an unclassified report, agents admit a “huge lapse” could have “changed everything.” Meanwhile, the A.C.L.U. has sued the F.B.I. for more information in the death of Ibragim Todashev, an alleged Tsarnaev associate who an F.B.I. agent shot and killed while he was allegedly confessing to he and Tamerlan’s involvement in a 2011 triple murder. A year after the marathon bombing, it seems as though questions of justice surrounding those accused of perpetrating the attack are far from answered.

In other news . . . one silly story and a link dump:

Tom Lehrer performing

Tom Lehrer performing

Do you remember Tom Lehrer? Back in the ’50s he wrote a sang darkly humorous satirical songs. A few days ago, Ben Smith had an interesting article about him at Buzzfeed, Looking For Tom Lehrer, Comedy’s Mysterious Genius. Here a bit of it:

Lehrer had been a sensation in the late 1950s, the era’s musical nerd god: a wryly confident Harvard-educated math prodigy who turned his bone-dry wit to satirical musical comedy. His sound looked further back, to Broadway of the ‘20s and ‘30s — a man and a piano, crisp and clever — but his lyrics were funny and sharp to the point of drawing blood, and sometimes appalling. One famous ditty celebrates an afternoon spent “Poisoning Pigeons in the Park.”Another cheerful number, “So Long Mom,” dwells on the details of nuclear holocaust. “I Got It from Agnes” is an extended joke about sexually transmitted disease….

In the recent history of American music, there’s no figure parallel to Lehrer in his effortless ascent to fame, his trajectory into the heart of the culture — and then his quiet, amiable, inexplicable departure. During his golden decade, he appeared on The Tonight Show twice,drew a denunciation in Time magazine, and by the early 1960s, seemed poised for a lasting place on an American cultural scene that itself was undergoing a radical upheaval.

Then Lehrer simply stopped performing. His entire body of work topped out at 37 songs. He bounced around Cambridge, never quite finishing his doctorate on the concept of the mode — the most common number in a set — in statistics. He kept the Sparks Street house but began spending most of his time in Santa Cruz, Calif., where he became a beloved instructor in math and musical theater for some 40 years.

“There’s never been anyone like him,” said Sir Cameron Mackintosh, the legendary Broadway producer who created Tom Foolery, a musical revue of Lehrer’s songs, in the ’70s. “Of all famous songwriters, he’s probably the only one that, in the great sense of the word, is an amateur in that he never wanted to be professional. And yet the work he did is of the highest quality of any great songwriter.”

It turns out Lehrer is still alive at the age of 86. Buried deep in Smith’s article is a brief, off-hand mention that Lehrer once worked for the National Security Agency (NSA). It was while he was in the army from 1955-57. Calling Greenwald and Snowden! Time to demolish Lehrer for his perfidy! Amazing, it’s even in his Wikipedia entry–who knew? And he worked at Los Alamos before that.

Tom Lehrer, then and now

Tom Lehrer, then and now

From an interview with Lehrer I found; I don’t know the date:

>GEO: I was surprised to learn that you enlisted in the Army back in 1955.

TOM LEHRER: That’s one way of putting it, but probably not the appropriate verb. The point is that they were drafting people up to the age of 35. So I dodged the draft for as long as anybody was shooting at anybody. And then when I realized that I would have to go — there was really no way out of it except getting an essential full time job, which I didn’t really want to do — I waited until everything was calm and then surrendered to the draft board. I wouldn’t call it “enlist”. “Enlist” means that you have to spend another year. I allowed myself to be drafted. I was 27 at the time and there were a lot of graduate students who were like me who had gotten deferred as graduate students and now had to pay up. So it was a kind of an odd group there, a lot of educated people in my “outfit”, I believe is the word. And we had a lot of fun. So I did that for two years in Washington DC and had a great time — especially since there was no war — though vice president Nixon was trying to get us into one in Indo-China even then. So there was that little threat. And there was Suez and a few other little things that looked a little tricky. But it didn’t look like there was going to be a real war. So it seemed to be safe to go in. And I’m sure that a lot of my cohort felt the same way.

>GEO: And what did you do?

TOM LEHRER: It was NSA. I think I’m allowed to say that now. I asked around before I surrender [sic] to be sure that I would not be in special services or something playing volleyball with the troops in Korea. I wanted to make sure that I got a nice cushy job. We were called “The Chair Borned”. And I found out that they were hiring mathematicians. So I arranged to be hired.

A few more interesting stories:

CNN: ‘Blood moon’ mesmerizes sky gazers.

NYT: Ukraine Falters in Drive to Curb Unrest in East.

Reuters: Russia says Ukraine close to civil war as Kiev begins offensive.

Politico: George Bush’s Paintings Aren’t Funny. But they are fascinating.

Fox News: Teen punished for recording alleged bullying to sue school district.

LA Times: Sex offenders charged with rape, murder of four Orange County women.

NY Daily News: Sex offender serial killers wore GPS trackers when raping, killing at least 4 women: police 


 So . . . What are you hearing and reading. Please share your recommended links in the comments.



56 Comments on “Tuesday Reads: Boston Marathon Bombing Anniversary, Tom Lehrer and NSA, and Other News”

  1. bostonboomer says:

    They are saying more women may have been murdered by those two guys who were supposedly under police supervision.

    There’s a bloodbath going on in this country with so much violence against women. When will it be taken seriously instead of used as entertainment?

    • RalphB says:

      You can almost guarantee a higher victim count from those two guys. I don’t know what it will take to change our warped society but we have so many things which have to change that it seems an impossible task.

  2. bostonboomer says:

    Another terrible anniversary arrives in two days.

    • RalphB says:

      That will never change until the “right” people find a way to make a lot of money from the change. Unfortunate but true.

  3. RalphB says:

    Nice post and I hope you weather the bombing anniversary well! Here’s a bit of what I think is good news.

    With new health law, insurers target diabetics

    MIAMI (AP) — Diabetics beware. Your insurance company is looking for you.

    As hundreds of thousands of diabetics get health coverage under the federal law, insurance companies are aggressively targeting this glut of new patients, who are expensive to treat and often lax in taking medications and following their diet.

    Insurers are calling diabetics when they don’t pick up prescriptions or miss appointments. They are arranging transportation to get them to the doctor’s office and some are even sending nurses on house calls in an effort to avoid costly complications that will have big impact on their bottom lines.

    Before the Affordable Care Act, some diabetics struggled to find insurance because of their pre-existing condition. But the new law no longer allows companies to refuse them or charge more, making early intervention even more critical.

    About 60 percent or so people with Type 2 diabetes can keep side effects at bay by simply managing sugar levels, exercising and watching their weight, said Dr. Sam Nussbaum, a former endocrinologist at Harvard’s Massachusetts General Hospital and an executive vice president for the insurer WellPoint.

    On the flip side, if the disease is ignored, it can lead to multiple, severe complications. It’s the leading cause of heart disease, strokes, kidney failure and vision loss.

    A relatively healthy person with diabetes can cost insurers around $5,000 a year.

    “But if you let any of those long-term, difficult complications develop, then you’re talking $100,000 dollars plus,” Nussbaum said.

    Under new health law, insurers target diabetics before they get lax in managing costly disease. I see this as a big plus in changing the way insurance companies do business. Hope the wingnuts don’t see it as an infringement on their right to die early..

  4. Fannie says:

    I don’t know BB, time is certainly flying by, already one year. I remember that morning so very well, and how sad we were. I remember the police department did a real good job dealing with it on that day. We were horrified at the number of bullets going into the home/surroundings when he was hiding in the boat. I don’t know how he survived.

    The republicans aren’t helping matters when it comes to stopping the violence. Every single one of them voted against WAVA. At the Cliven Bundy Ranch in Clark Co. Nevada, the so called patriots wanted to put women on the front lines, so that they can televise the ” feds shooting down women”. I mean that’s really fucked up. They are deliberate in abusing women and children, and then blaming women because they think she set them off.

    What a fucking nightmare.

    Thank you for doing such a great job with the Boston Bombers, and thank you for the very important question, when will the abuse, the violence be taken serious? I am getting sick of it, it’s not normal. In fact it leads to the death of women, people say he was such a nice man, and nobody ever thought he would “bust” and chop women up. It makes you want to give up, but the fight to stop the violence is needed now more than ever.

  5. RalphB says:

    As night follows day, wingnuts come out of the woodwork 🙂

    tpm: ‘Shoe Truthers’ Wonder If Hillary Staged Shoe Throwing Incident

  6. bostonboomer says:

    Interesting: Lots of people on Twitter pointing out that Marcy Wheeler’s bio at The Week no longer references First Look.


  7. bostonboomer says:

    OMG, I just saw on Facebook that JJ’s daughter’s bus is stuck in Indiana because of (I think) an accident blocking the highway in front of them. Looking for news articles . . .

  8. bostonboomer says:

    There was a bus accident on I-90, but it sounds like it wasn’t Bebe’s bus. Maybe it’s the accident that held them up. I hope we hear from JJ.

    Megabus, semi strike guardrails on I-90 in Ind.

    April 15, 2014 (LAKE STATION, Ind.) (WLS) — A Megabus struck a disabled semi tractor-trailer while trying to get by on an overpass on I-90 in Lake Station, Ind.

    No one was injured, but there were some tense moments when the Megabus, which was headed from Detroit to Chicago, slid on the overpass and struck the semi, pushing both vehicles into the guardrails. Passengers say the bus nearly went over.

    • bostonboomer says:

      Originally told they should stay on the Megabus for their own safety, passengers were eventually evacuated as officials attempted to move the bus. Another concern- the gas tank on the tractor trailer was wedged up against the guardrail and could explode.

      “I felt safer off the bus, just in case. I don’t know how sturdy that rail is, you know, to hold that big bus,” Dorothy Lewis, passenger, said.

      The Megabus was eventually driven to safety, the passengers got back on it since the vehicle didn’t suffer any heavy damage, and then they drove away.

    • RalphB says:

      JJ has comments on this in yesterday’s post from late last night. Seems like Bebe is OK.

  9. RalphB says:

    Fast Company: Chelsea Clinton Makes Her Move

    Best article I’ve read in a very long time.

  10. bostonboomer says:

    George Will claims that preventive health care is:

    a phrase Democrats use to include abortion as they try to reprise their 2012 alarms about Republicans’ “war on women,” which began with the martyrdom of Sandra Fluke. She was the Georgetown University law student aggrieved because the Catholic university she chose to attend was not paying for her contraception. The median starting annual salary of Georgetown law graduates entering the private sector is $160,000. Wal-Mart sells a month’s worth of birth control pills for $9.

    Sandra Fluke also did not demand that Georgetown pay for her contraception. She argued they should cover birth control in their insurance plan that students have to pay for.

    • RalphB says:

      But if they admit Fluke only wanted her paid for insurance plan to pay for their medical needs, then the RWNJs won’t have anything to be angry about. It would ruin their whole day without some fauxrage.

  11. bostonboomer says:


    There is a wildness in this country, and it is spreading, and the people who carry the wildness know each other, and it’s past time for the country to look at the backpack on the bench and notice all the wires.

  12. bostonboomer says:

    Wow. Benjamin Wittes at Lawfare Blog:

    The Washington Post and Guardian Pulitzers: I Dissent

    The Pulitzer Board’s citation to these two organizations has a faintly comic air. The Post the board congratulates not merely for “its revelation of widespread secret surveillance by the National Security Agency” but for “authoritative and insightful reports that helped the public understand how the disclosures fit into the larger framework of national security.” For the Guardian, by contrast, the board rather conspicuously omits any reference to authority or to insight, noting only that the paper had “help[ed] through aggressive reporting to spark a debate about the relationship between the government and the public over issues of security and privacy.”

    The latter is at least true. The commendation to the Post, by contrast, involves an assertion of fact that is, at a minimum, highly contestable. The Post got big things wrong in the stories the board honors. It reported that NSA has access to the servers of internet companies—a fact it then changed in the story without running a correction, for example. It grossly misreported, using entirely true facts, on a compliance audit so as to present it as suggesting nearly the opposite of what it actually shows. And it frequently reported on the most routine sort of overseas intelligence collection, collection of precisely the sort the law authorizes, in breathless tones suggestive of gross impropriety….

    As to the Guardian, well, if sparking a debate is enough to earn the Pulitzer’s coveted public service medal, then sure. Congrats. I would note, however, that merely sparking a debate is an exceedingly low standard.

    There was a time, and it wasn’t very long ago, when this medal meant something more, when “aggressive reporting” meant more than being a vehicle to shovel leaked documents to the public, with stops along the way for obligatory government comment, for fawning characterizations of one’s own sources, and for tendentious claims about what those documents say.

  13. dakinikat says:

    Supply, Demand, and Unemployment Benefits


    Ben Casselman points out that we’ve had a sort of natural experiment in the alleged effects of unemployment benefits in reducing employment. Extended benefits were cancelled at the beginning of this year; have the long-term unemployed shown any tendency to find jobs faster? And the answer is no.

    Let me parse this a bit more, and ask, how was it, exactly, that reduced benefits were supposed to encourage employment in the first place?

    Making the unemployed miserable arguably increases labor supply, as workers become less choosy and more willing to take whatever job they can find. But the US labor market in 2014 isn’t constrained by supply, it’s constrained by demand: given what firms can sell, they have no need for as many hours of work as workers are willing to give.

  14. dakinikat says:

    Well, Ralph, it’s not looking good for Wendy …

    Taegan Goddard ‏@politicalwire 58m
    Greg Abbott leads Wendy Davis by double-digits in new TX-Gov poll

    • RalphB says:

      That polling may be right but it sure doesn’t match the conditions on the ground. I’m gonna wait this one out for a while.

    • RalphB says:

      That poll is an utter clusterfuck. I don’t know how you could realistically get this number.

      One thing that may be working to Abbott’s benefit is that for the first time ever in PPP’s Texas polling Rick Perry has a positive approval rating, with 48% of voters approving of him to 44% who disapprove.

    • RalphB says:

      They show an electorate that is 68% Republican/Ind/Other, 68% over the age of 46, and 64% white. If that’s the turnout, then it’s a sure loser for Democrats and all the voter registration/GOTV of Battleground Texas and the Davis campaign will have failed miserably.

    • RalphB says:

      Texas to the World: Wendy and the Women

      Governor Rick Perry has kept alive the equal pay controversy by calling it “ludicrous” to consider codifying the federal measure into the state’s law, and suburban housewives and single mothers are likely to become more animated as the shutdown of family services continues across Texas and complicates the lives of women. If Abbott’s equal pay refusal alienates women, political peril is the likely consequence. In Texas, women voted in 2012 election at a higher rate than men, which was 69.2% to 64.5%; they turned out in bigger numbers, as well, and, ultimately, comprised 55.2% of the electorate, compared to 44.7% for men.

      If women choose, they can make Wendy Davis the governor of Texas.

      James Moore, who has forgotten more about Texas politics than most will ever know, nails it on what Wendy needs to win.

  15. dakinikat says:


    Of all the sins against the craft of journalism, the one I find the most mortal is the acceptance by journalists as axiomatic the notion that “Perception is reality.” This is a fine thing for ad men, and for consultants, and for the other witches and warlocks that make up the tangle of fauna infesting our political system. It is death to actual journalism. Perception is perception and reality is reality and, if they don’t match up, then it is the job of journalism not to accept the perception as the reality, but to hammer home the reality until the perception conforms to this. If you want to see someone who has tumbled all the way down the rabbit hole on this issue, check out the quotes collected here at Salon from The Washington Post’s Chris Cillizza.

    Charlie is hammering out pure gold today

    • bostonboomer says:

      It’s too bad he can’t seem to apply the same “piercing” analysis to Glenn Greenwald.

      • RalphB says:

        He believes Greenwald. Note my own kvetching about the PPP poll above, which may be right, but I don’t agree with so …

  16. Here is a news story about the accident that trapped Bebe’s bus:

    3 dead in I-65 crash approaching 2nd accident in Indiana | abc7chicago.com

    She just called me, they are in Lexington Ky. I can’t wait till she gets home. I am going back to bed now.

  17. RalphB says:

    If Abbott wins, I don’t think I can defend staying in this state any longer.

    Texas to the World: Crooks, Creeps, and Crackpots

    The notion that Greg Abbott was going to become governor of Texas without much of a fight has quickly disappeared into a smog of bad decisions. The state’s attorney general, who has recently been defending a public education plan derived, in part, from the dissertations of a gender and racial elitist, keeps making disturbing choices that create more doubt than confidence.

    And one of his worse, thus far, has gone without notice.

    A key strategist of Abbott’s campaign team is a confessed criminal who admitted money laundering to circumvent Texas campaign finance laws. John Colyandro, who began his political career writing direct mail pieces for Karl Rove, is Abbott’s director of policy. He was also a central figure in a scheme that funneled corporate dollars into Texas legislative campaigns in violation of state law.

    It only get worse from there.

  18. RalphB says:

    gawker: Crazy Armed Whiteys Successfully Defend Cows’ Constitutional Rights

    Adam Weinstein is hilarious in this post 😉

  19. RalphB says:


  20. bostonboomer says:

    Baseball Great Hank Aaron Flooded With Racist Hate Mail After Defending Obama


  21. RalphB says:

    tp: Governor Bans Minimum Wage Increases And Paid Sick Leave Laws

    At a time when many states and cities are working passing minimum wage increases, Oklahoma Gov. Mary Fallin (R) has gone in the opposite direction and signed a law banning cities from passing higher wages. The bill also bans them from enacting paid sick days or vacation requirements.

    While seven American cities and one state have passed paid sick leave requirements, ten states — Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin — have banned local efforts, with seven of those passing over the last year, and many other states have considered similar bills. Yet there is no evidence to support the idea that these requirements hurt businesses or job growth.

    The party of local control strikes again.

  22. RalphB says:

    Why Putin’s Adventure in Ukraine Is Doomed

    Hope Putin isn’t so isolated that he gets no real information.

  23. joanelle says:

    Wow, I loved Tom Lehrer, brings back good memories of my undergrad days.

  24. bostonboomer says:

    FBI Uncovers Al-Qaeda Plot To Just Sit Back And Enjoy Collapse Of United States

    “We have intercepted electronic communication indicating that al-Qaeda members are actively plotting to stay out of the way while America as we know it gradually crumbles under the weight of its own self-inflicted debt and disrepair,” FBI Deputy Director Mark F. Giuliano told the assembled press corps. “If this plan succeeds, it will leave behind a nation with a completely dysfunctional economy, collapsing infrastructure, and a catastrophic health crisis afflicting millions across the nation. We want to emphasize that this danger is very real.”

    “And unfortunately, based on information we have from intelligence assets on the ground, this plot is already well under way,” he added.

    A recently declassified CIA report confirmed that all known al-Qaeda-affiliated organizations—from Pakistan to Yemen, and from Somalia to Algeria—have been instructed to kick back and enjoy the show as the United States’ federal government, energy grid, and industrial sector are rendered impotent by internal dissent, decay, and mismanagement.

  25. bostonboomer says:

    The NYPD Announces End of Program Created to Spy on Muslims


  26. RalphB says:

    Daily Banter: Ron Paul Warns That the Feds May Bring “Waco” To the Bundy Ranch

    RT, who else, has to get patient zero’s opinion on the range problems.